Pode o combate ao insucesso escolar justificar a separação de alunos por etnia?

Experiências pontais, adequadas a contextos muito específicos… sim.

Como politica gobal que legitime a segregação, não.

Our data show that segregation by immigrant status in primary schools is already high in the Netherlands – and as high or higher than in many cities in the U.S. – and that segregation continues to rise in many cities despite little or no increase in the proportion of immigrants in the school age population. Although a number of efforts have been initiated to reduce segregation, especially in the countries largest cities, these efforts have thus far shown little success.


Whatever their role in creating the problem, however, the twin aspects of freedom of education – the right of parents to choose their child’s school and the operational autonomy afforded to schools – make it is very difficult for the Dutch to do anything about their high levels of school segregation. Any proposal to reduce segregation, whether through voluntary agreements among schools or governmental policies, will inevitably involve a trade-off with a deeply held Dutch value.

Ou seja, quando o alto valor da liberdade parental entra em choque e contradição com outros valores (serão mesmo menores?) como os da igualdade de acesso, da equidade e da justiça social, para ficarmos só por estes, mais evidentes.

Deve a liberdade dos mais fortes manter-se cristalizada à custa da subordinação dos mais fracos?

Academies ‘increase divisions between the rich and poor’: Study finds segregation made worse by a wider choice of schooling


Clicar na imagem para aceder ao relatório.

Coisas chatas que a propaganda das reformas de sucesso não se lembra de contar.

How to end ‘Apartheid’ in Dutch Schools?


Freedom of school choice meets its limits

A new study reveals that one in three Dutch schools are segregated. Attempts to discourage ‘black’ and ‘white’ schools often clash with the constitutional right to freedom of education.


Segregation in Dutch Primary Schools


Countering School Segregation: Learning from (Dutch) experience?


Schools ‘damaging integration’ by blocking ethnic minority children

Socioeconomic school segregation in a market-oriented educational system. The case of Chile

This paper presents an empirical analysis of the socioeconomic status (SES) school segregation in Chile, whose educational system is regarded as an extreme case of a market-oriented education. The study estimated the magnitude and evolution of the SES segregation of schools at both national and local levels, and it studied the relationship between some local educational market dynamics and the observed magnitude of SES school segregation at municipal level. The main findings were: first, the magnitude of the SES segregation of both low-SES and high-SES students in Chile was very high (Duncan Index ranged from 0.50 to 0.60 in 2008); second, during the last decade, SES school segregation tended to slightly increase in Chile, especially in high schools (both public and private schools); third, private schools – including voucher schools – were more segregated than public schools for both low-SES and high-SES students; and finally, some market dynamics operating in the Chilean education (like privatization, school choice, and fee-paying) accounted for a relevant proportion of the observed variation in SES school segregation at municipal level. These findings are analyzed from an educational policy perspective in which the link between SES school segregation and market-oriented mechanisms in education plays a fundamental role.

Does Immigration Induce ‘Native Flight’ from Public Schools? Evidence from a large scale voucher program

Results from this study indicate an increase in native Danes propensity to enroll their children in free schools as the share of children with immigrant background becomes larger in their municipality of residence. The effect is most pronounced in small and medium sized municipalities, while it seems absent in larger municipalities. One explanation for the latter holds that residential segregation within larger municipalities makes a choice of private alternatives less attractive.

School choice, universal vouchers and native flight out of local public schools

Choice Without Equity:
 Charter School Segregation and the Need for Civil Rights Standards


Charter Schools’ Political Success is a Civil Rights Failure



Ethnic School Segregation Exists: Possibilities for Counteracting Measures


Ethnic school segregation exists. In The Netherlands, in other countries of Europe and in other parts of the world. It seems that it is partly caused by the freedom of parents to choose a school for their children. The result is a growing segregation between children with different cultural backgrounds. Proof is found for a white flight in The Netherlands, Denmark and the United Kingdom [1]. Countries, once they have acknowledged this development, are faced with a scope of possibilities for measures. In The Netherlands several initiatives are started and some measures were implemented to prevent primary education from ethnic segregation or to diminish it, when occurring. Most measures are parental initiatives or local dispersion plans. In this paper we will discuss some promising recent Dutch case studies of local parental initiatives and local dispersion,

Living and Learning Separately? Ethnic Segregation of School Children in Copenhagen


Documenting the level of ethnic residential and school segregation in Copenhagen shows low levels of residential segregation due to suburbanisation (opposite to the US experience), but high levels of school segregation, which for some student groups reach levels comparable to the extreme segregation typical for US cities. Thus, the evidence from Copenhagen suggests that low residential segregation does not necessarily translate into moderate school segregation: when school choice options are available (public and, in particular, private), low residential segregation is compatible with high school segregation levels. A decomposition suggests that socioeconomic differences do not seem to be the main driving-force behind school segregation.

Dealing with Diversity: Middle-class Family Households and the Issue of ‘Black’ and ‘White’ Schools in Amsterdam


The urban middle classes often celebrate the diversity of their neighbourhood. As soon as they have children, however, the desire to display symbolic capital may conflict with the need to reproduce cultural capital through the educational system. In the ethnically diverse Amsterdam schooling context, in which parents have free school choice and school access is not determined by fees, the socio-spatial strategies of school choice could be expected to differ from particularly the UK context. Based on in-depth interviews conducted with white middle-class parents in Amsterdam, this study argues that ethnic diversity is a major concern when they are seeing primary schools for their children, but that middle-class fractions have different socio-spatial strategies for managing it. It is argued that, despite differences in terms of housing market and school policies, the strategies of the Amsterdam middle classes are very similar to other contexts, suggesting homologies of class between national contexts.