Finlândia


Education in Finland: Pisa isn’t the full story

Despite Finnish education’s strong performance in Pisa, it isn’t all perfect – science and maths standards are declining and top-performing students aren’t being pushed enough.

… que muitos gostam de apresentar como ideal, esuqecendo-se que tem um contexcto histórico, cultural, socio-económico e que tudo isso é um conjunto integrado do qual não se podem extrair apenas as partes convenientes.

É excelente como algo a atingir… fazendo o caminho até lá… sem andar aos ziguezagues.

há que descansar antes da terceira reunião desta época, a derradeira.

Esta visão é curiosa, não apenas porque é americana, mas porque os finlandeses parecem beneficiar de tudo aquilo que por cá (sejam rosinhas ou laranjinhas) se acha mal deixar os professores terem…

The Finnish advantage: the teachers

(…)

According to Sahlberg, the one factor that trumps all others for Finland’s current educational system’s fame is the daily contribution of excellent teachers.
Why are they excellent? The best single-sentence answer: Because Finnish culture esteems teaching as a noble, autonomous, prestigious profession, comparable to working as a medical doctor, lawyer or architect.
Why is the professionalism of teaching in Finland so appealing to aspirants and practitioners? There are multiple contributing factors, all largely absent in West Virginia’s public school system.
The first appears to be independence, freedom from the influence, guidance or control of others in the practice of the profession of teaching, as is largely the practice of medicine, law or accountancy.
There is no regular standardized testing, school inspection, teacher evaluation or ranking of schools in Finland. The most able and talented young people are attracted to teaching because it represents an independent and respectful profession within which they may fulfill their aspirations, rather than constituting a technical implementation of externally mandated standards, endless tests and administrative burdens.
Finnish teachers are particularly skeptical of using frequent standardized tests to determine students’ progress in school. In fact, many teachers reported that if they encountered similar external pressure regarding standardized testing and high-stakes accountability as do their peers in England or the United States, they would seek other jobs.

Sugestão do Carlos Moreira:

What Americans Keep Ignoring About Finland’s School Success

The Scandinavian country is an education superpower because it values equality more than excellence.

Em especial para os que gostam dois lugares de topo nos rankings internacionais.

Part I: Index and chapters 1–6 (pdf, 19 Mt)
1. Curriculum
2. Starting points for provision of education
3. Implementation of instruction
4. General support for studies
5. Instruction of pupils needing special support
6. Instruction of cultural and language groups

Part II: Chapters 7, 7.1–7.3 (pdf, 34 Mt)
7. Learning objectives and core contents of education
7.1 Integration and cross-curricular themes
7.2 Studies in mother tongues and the second national language
7.3 Mother tongue and literature

Part III: Chapters 7.4–7.9 (pdf, 25 Mt)
7.4 Second national language
7.5 Foreign languages
7.6 Mathematics
7.7 Environmental and natural sciences
7.8 Biology and geography
7.9 Physics and chemistry

Part IV: Chapters 7.10–7.21 (pdf, 16 Mt)
7.10 Health education
7.11 Religion
7.12 Ethics
7.13 History
7.14 Social studies
7.15 Music
7.16 Visual arts
7.17 Crafts
7.18 Physical education
7.19 Home economics
7.20 Optional subjects
7.21 Educational and vocational guidance

Part V: Chapters 8–9 and Appendix (pdf, 18 Mt)
8. Pupil assessment
9. Instruction in accordance with a special educational task or special pedagogical system or principle
Appendix 1–5
National core curriculum for instruction preparatory to basic education
National core curriculum for voluntary additional basic education

Amendments and additions

Amendments and additions to the National Core Curriculum for Basic Education (pdf), valid from 1.1.2011.

O resto do bídeo da resposta (amorosa) finlandesa está aqui, mas os outros argumentos não têm este fulgor.

Para quem quiser seguir as eleições na Finlândia, fica aqui o link para os resultados oficiais.

Finland election a crucial test for EU bailouts

O Antero voltou com apontamentos de férias…

Excelente e equilibrada peça de Isabel Leiria no Expresso de hoje, ouvindo diversos testemunhos de proximidade e contextualizando as diferentes realidades educativas em presença em países como a Finlândia, a Inglaterra e Portugal.

A diferença de meios ao dispor dos alunos com necessidades de apoio é brutal como refere António Granado, pai de três crianças que estiveram numa escola pública de Leeds e em que, no equivalente ao 10º ano, a turma estava separada em três grupos de trabalho distintos na disciplina de Matemática.

E o que dizer do papel da «ajudante de sala de aula» que é ouvida sobre a forma como funcionam as aulas na Finlândia, longe do isolamento do professor no meio de 28 alunos, quantos deles com necessidade de acompanhamento individualizado.

No fundo, como diz Simon Field, especialista da OCDE, quanto às estratégias para superar dificuldades na leitura, «essas interveções custam dinheiro», mas «custam muito menos do que um ano de chumbo».

É isso que por cá não se entende. Por cá, e superando pela negativa a minha intuição existe 1 psicólogo escolar para 1986 alunos. Ou seja, para quase 2000 alunos! É este o reverso dos rácios de poucos alunos por professor, pois se insiste em tornar o professor como uma espécie de especialista generalista multifunções que serve um pouco para tudo.

O acompanhamento feito nesses outros países não se baseia em quadros interactivos, mas sim na detecção precoce dos problemas, na mobilização dos recursos humanos (e secundariamente técnicos) especializados para os acompanhar e superar, mesmo quando o trabalho é feito na sala de aula, em parceria entre docentes e outros técnicos. Os planos de recuperação só servem, se existirem meios para serem colocados em prática e os meios não são apenas os professores regulares. Falta outro tipo e apoio. Entendam isso de uma vez por todas.

… e as medidas de extensão da escolaridade obrigatória.

Quando começa:

Special supporting pre-school education is needed by children, whose conditions for development, growth and learning have been affected by illness, disability or reduced functional ability. In addition, children in need of psychological or social support for their growth shall receive special support. Children whose development according to experts in education and pupil welfare services and parents or other guardians, involves risk factors related to learning potential, shall also be entitled to special support. In addition, special support in pre-school education shall be provided for children, who are within extended compulsory education or whose basic education has been deferred until one year later, and for children admitted or transferred to special education during pre-school education.

The physical and social learning environment and the necessary support services in children’s pre-school education shall primarily be organised so as to enable children to participate in group activities as fully as possible.

A child’s pre-school education plan shall be drawn up for each child in need of special support together with parents or other guardians and the relevant experts. The plan shall include the objectives set for the child’s growth and development and an assessment of the child’s strengths and risk factors and difficulties related to learning. The plan shall indicate any change needs related to child’s learning environment and the support and pupil welfare services required for participation in instruction, the bodies responsible for those and the monitoring and assessment of progress. The plans for those children admitted or transferred to special education shall be prepared in the form of personal plans covering the organisation of education (IEP).

Como se desenvolve:

Students who are lagging behind in their studies have possibility to remedial teaching. In addition, student welfare, educational guidance and cooperation with parents enable studying in mainstream instruction.

Pupils, who have minor learning difficulties, specific learning disorders or problems in adjusting to work, have the right to receive part-time special needs teaching. Part-time special needs education within mainstream instruction is provided to a pupil, who has slight difficulties in learning and adjustment or who needs special support to overcome learning difficulties. There are different ways to arrange part-time special needs education. It may be organised in general education (as team teaching), in small groups or individually.

Each pupil transferred or admitted to special education must be provided with an individual education plan (IEP). Provision of special education must always ensure that the interpretation and assistant services required for participation in education, as well as other teaching and pupil welfare services, rehabilitation needed in connection with special education and the development, guidance and support tasks related to instruction have been organised and that special aids have been acquired.

If 10-year compulsory education is not possible due to disability or illness or for some other similar reason, compulsory education will start one year earlier than for other pupils and it will last eleven years. Within this system of extended compulsory education, pre-primary education may take two years. If the parent or guardian so wishes, the extended compulsory education can start at the age of five on a voluntary basis.

Pensam que é como cá? Um ou dois professores para despistar milhentos alunos, após proposta de um DT ou Conselho de Turma? E acham que as decisões se tomam com base em papelada ou em exames atempados por pessoal especializado’? E quanto ao acompanhamento?

Ficam os Conceitos e Definições da Educação Especial finlandesa, aproveitando para desde logo aqui deixar a primeira regra:

Acceptances or transfers to special education
In the statistics on special education in comprehensive schools, acceptances and transfers to special education refer to pupils who have been accepted or transferred to special education due to disability, illness, delayed development, emotional disorder or other reason. Decisions about acceptances or transfers are made by municipal administrative bodies and require hearing of experts and parents, and drawing up of plans concerning the organisation of personal teaching. If necessary, the number of subjects can be individualised and reduced from those in general education. Duration of compulsory education can also be extended where the pupil is unlikely to reach the targets set for comprehensive school education within nine years.

Mas é muito útil ler mesmo tudo, para se perceberem as diferenças, desde logo os motivos para a integração na Educação Especial. Por cá muitos desses motivos são completamente ignorados pela legislação em vigor e os professores que se amanhem nas aulas (e no Estudo Acompanhado, claro, e diferenciando pedagogias numa sala com 24 ou 28…):

Grounds for special education

In the statistics on special education in comprehensive schools the grounds for acceptance or transfer to special education have been as follows since 2001:

1. Severely delayed development

* The grounds for acceptance or transfer to special education are moderate, severe or very severe delay of development. Pupils’ courses are always partly or completely individualised.

2. Slightly delayed development

* The grounds for acceptance or transfer to special education are slight delay in the pupil’s development.

3. Varying degrees of cerebral dysfunction, physical disability or similar

* The grounds for acceptance or transfer to special education are pupil’s neurological disability or developmental disorder, such as ADHD, or physical disability, such as the CP syndrome.

4. Emotional disturbance or social maladjustment

* The grounds for acceptance or transfer to special education are pupil’s emotional disturbance or social maladjustment.

5. Learning difficulties related to autism or the Asperger’s syndrome

* The grounds for acceptance or transfer to special education are pupil’s autism or Asperger’s syndrome.

6. Learning difficulties caused by impaired linguistic development (dysphasia)

* The grounds for acceptance or transfer to special education are pupil’s impaired linguistic development (dysphasia).

7. Visual impairment

* The grounds for acceptance or transfer to special education are pupil’s visual impairment.

8. Hearing impairment
-The grounds for acceptance or transfer to special education are pupil’s hearing impairment.

9. Other than reasons listed above

* The grounds for acceptance or transfer to special education are some other reasons not listed above.

The grounds for special education are based on the decision concerning acceptance or transfer to special education.

Pois… pode ser que sim, que  não existam reenções, mas… como será que eles lá fazem? Será que por lá não há mesmo crianças com dificuldades de aprendizagem? E havendo, como é que tratam disso? Estas são as estatísticas mais recentes dos alunos que, despistadas dificuldades, são transferidos para a Educação Especial a tempo inteiro ou parcial.

Reparem nos números e no peso relativo no total dos alunos:

Number of pupils transferred to special education unchanged, more students in part-time special education

Eight-and-a-half per cent of comprehensive school students, or over 47,000 pupils, had been transferred to special education in autumn 2009. The number was almost unchanged from the previous year. Around 23 per cent, or 127,900 comprehensive school students, received part-time special education during the 2008-2009 academic year. The number of pupils attending part-time special education grew by 1,600 from the previous year. These data derive from Statistics Finland’s Education Statistics.

Shares of pupils transferred to special education and receiving part-time special education among all comprehensive school pupils 1995-2009, % 1)

Quase 25% de alunos a receber educação especial a tempo parcial e cerca de 8% transferidos para a Educação Especial. Seriam estes números aceitáveis por cá, com a aplicação da legislação em vigor? E será que a Educação Especial a tempo parcial por lá se pode equiparar a mais Estudo Acompanhado ou APA?

In 2009, 29 per cent of those transferred to special education were fully and 24 per cent partially integrated into groups attending general education. In all, 33 per cent of those transferred to special education received teaching in special groups in comprehensive schools and 14 per cent in special schools. More often than in the previous year special education was arranged in general education groups and in special groups in comprehensive schools. Instead, the number of special pupils studying in special schools and partly in general education groups decreased.

Não brinquemos…

… podia descarregar o pdf e ler, mas assim…

Quality criteria for basic education

… suscitassem algumas dúvidas a todos aqueles que por cá endeusam todo o sistema, sem perceberem as suas bases e partes essenciais.

Vou passar sobre o facto de as estatísticas oficiais em alguns países escandinavos praticarem um apartheid estatístico, separando os resultados dos alunos com origem sueca dos imigrantes. Isso é que era ver muita esquerda pró-finlandesa aos saltos se por cá fizessem isso.

No entanto, vou concentrar-me antes numa medida proposta para entrar em vigor daqui a um ano (nada como cá que se legisla para o ano anterior), sobre questões que se consideram de segurança para os ambientes de estudo e que podem mesmo impedir o direito a estudar de alunos que não cumpram as regras, incluindo neste caso a chamada vocational and training education:

Revocation of the right to study, drug testing and disciplinary actions improving safety

(…)

The committee proposes the possibility to revoke a student’s right to study fields which involve the safety of minors or patient, customer or traffic safety. It would be a ground for revoking the right to study if a student has repeatedly or seriously endangered another person’s health or safety or that a student has a health problem essentially undermining his/her functional capacity which puts other persons’ health and safety at serious risk. If necessary, the student could be required to undergo medical examinations and tests needed to ascertain the level of his/her functional capacity.

In studies which entail working with children, the right to study could also be revoked on the grounds of a conviction for an act of obscenity, a sexual crime, homicide or aggravated assault or a gross narcotics offence. The student would be required to provide an extract of his/her criminal record.

Before a decision is taken to revoke a student’s right to study, measures should be taken to discuss with the student the possibility for him/her to seek other type of education and training. Another possibility would be for the student to transfer to another training programme organised by the educational establishment in question.

The committee proposes provisions to be included in the Acts concerned on the possibility to restore a student’s right to study if the grounds for revoking it cease to exist. The student could reapply for the right to study one year from the cancellation decision at the earliest.

The committee also proposes amendments providing for drug testing of students. Subject to conditions specified in statutes, drug tests would be possible in practical assignments included in studies, on-the-job learning and traineeships. These conditions could be, for example, that a student acting under the influence of intoxicants or a student with a dependency on intoxicants would gravely endanger himself/herself, the life or health of another person, traffic safety, the confidentiality or integrity of information protected by data security legislation, or that he/she would significantly add the risk of trafficking, possession, use or distribution of drugs and medical substances. Refusing a drug test or a positive test result could lead to disciplinary action.

The committee further proposes amendments providing for the disclosure of information, provisions on confidentiality notwithstanding, for purposes relating to the assessment of a student for admission, the revocation of a student’s right to study and disciplinary action. The National Supervision Authority for Welfare and Health would be entitled to obtain information necessary for the supervision of patient and customer safety.

Se isto fosse por cá, não faltariam os gritos de fáxismo! fáxismo!

… que o resto é só conversa.

Civic knowledge of Finnish young people at top level

International study of 38 countries

Young people have little interest in politics and societal issues

The civic knowledge of Finnish and Danish young people is at top level. The civic knowledge of young people has decreased in many countries during the last ten years, but Finland is an exception. Young people in Finland are not interested in politics or societal issues but they trust in society’s institutions.

These results were found in the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study, ICCS, conducted in Finland as collaboration between the Finnish Institute for Educational Research at the University of Jyväskylä and Ministry of Education and Culture. The international and Finnish preliminary results were published today. 3307 8th graders from 176 schools and 2295 teachers took part in the study in Finland in the spring of 2009. Information was also gathered from school principals.

- Finnish PISA success is now followed by success in the area of civic knowledge, says director of the study, Professor Pekka Kupari.

- Civic issues are discussed within all school subjects in Finland, but they are most closely tied to history, social studies, geography, religion, philosophy, home economics and health education, adds researcher Annikka Suoninen.

Civic knowledge of Finnish youth internationally at top level

Students on the 8th grade of Finnish comprehensive school received the top score (576 points) in the study of 38 countries. Finland shared the number one spot with Denmark. Korea (565 points) and Taiwan (559) were the other two countries in the top four. Sweden and Norway also scored well above the international average of 500 points.

Consultando o site oficial do estudo o que se percebe: Portugal não é um dos participantes, assim evitando…

Via Blog do Bulimunda.

Publicado por iniciativa de um grupo de professores da Esc. Secundária D. João II de Setúbal.

Publicação original aqui.

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