Cheques-Ensino


PG Pub15MAi14

Público, 15 de Maio de 2014

Não sei quanto tempo, caso a legislação eu ameaçam publicar para amordaçar as vozes críticas de “dentro” venha mesmo a ser colocada em prática, poderei continuar a dizer publicamente aquilo que penso e em que acredito.

Pelo que vou aproveitando.

Se não tenho uma visão conspirativa global da maioria das pessoas que trabalham na comunicação social (pelo menos, das que conheço), tenho uma visão muito negativa dos herdeiros do Relvas que continuam a desgovernar-nos às claras ou nas sombras.

São muito liberais e adoram a liberdade, desde que ela não se vire contra eles. E isso é tão mais verdade quão maior é a incompetência e a falta de carácter.

A claustrofobia democrática está de boa saúde, mas não se recomenda.

 

Neoliberal Education and StudentMovements in Chile: inequalities and malaise

The Impact of Voucher Schools

How school choice has — and hasn’t — worked. Second in a series on education in Milwaukee.

Twenty years ago, Milwaukee grabbed the attention of the nation by instituting the most significant departure from traditional public education in generations: the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, more commonly known as “choice,” or “voucher schools.”

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Voucher schools serve 16 percent of the city’s student population and represent an annual expenditure of $150 million in tax dollars per year. So the most important question for policymakers, citizens, and, ultimately, parents, is this: has it worked? Has the investment paid off?

(…)

Taken as a whole, the voucher schools on average have similar test score results to Milwaukee Public Schools. Roughly the same percentage of voucher-receiving students were achieving at proficiency or better than all students in MPS in 2010-2011, but the following year, voucher students had somewhat lower test scores in reading and significantly lower scores in math.

Taken school by school, the distribution of quality schools in the voucher system and MPS is similar. Roughly the same percentage of voucher and MPS schools score higher than state averages in reading, and roughly the same percentage are very low performing. There is evidence that tighter accountability standards, including requiring that schools receiving vouchers be accredited and take state standardized tests, has led to better results and fewer bad schools being allowed to participate.

So is the program a net win or loss for the city? Clearly Milwaukee needs more high quality schools, and the voucher program has unquestionably added quality schools to the menu of options open to parents. But the program has also given rise to schools no better than, and in some cases worse, than the public school options nearby.

And while the $6,442 voucher is much lower than the per-pupil expenditures for MPS, a quirk in how the State accounts for private school students, widely known as the “funding flaw,” means city residents arguably pay more than we should per voucher student, while non-Milwaukee residents benefit.

Milwaukee’s grand experiment put power directly into the hands of low-income parents in the form of a voucher. But after 20 years we now know that this power alone is not enough to create excellent schools. The excellent schools that exist in each sector show that it takes a community committed to excellence to make it happen: educators, parents, volunteer board members and others, all committed to a common vision and doing whatever it takes, and held accountable for meaningful results beyond a test score.

Distributional Effects of a School Voucher Program: Evidence from New York City

Abstract

We use quantile treatment effects estimation to examine the consequences of a school voucher experiment across the distribution of student achievement. In 1997, the School Choice Scholarship Foundation granted $1,400 private school vouchers to a randomly-selected group of low-income New York City elementary school students. Prior research indicates that this program had no average effect on student achievement. If vouchers boost achievement at one part of the distribution and hurt achievement at another, zero or small mean effects may obscure theoretically important but offsetting program effects. Drawing upon prior research related to Catholic schools and school choice, we derive three hypotheses regarding the program’s distributional consequences. Our analyses suggest that the program had no significant effect at any point in the skill distribution.

… como um sistema de cheque-ensino direccionado para grupos sociais e étnicos mais desfasvorecidos pode produzir alguns efeitos.

THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL VOUCHERS ON COLLEGE ENROLLMENT: Experimental Evidence from New York City

(..)
We find suggestive evidence that educational and religious reasons may explain the different findings for African American and Hispanic students.
Although it would be incorrect to say that educational objectives were not uppermost in the minds of respondents from both ethnic groups (as respondents from both groups made it clear that such was the case), the weight given different objectives appears to have differed in some respects. African American students were especially at risk of not going on to college, and families sought a private school — even one outside their religious tradition — that would help their child overcome that disadvantage. Hispanic students were less at risk of not enrolling in college and likely sought a voucher for some combination of religious and educational benefits.

O que eu gostava de saber?

Qual a proporção de alunos de minorias étnicas nos colégios com contrato de associação. Qual a proporção desses alunos nos que têm contratos simples, que são o equivalente mais próximo ao cheque-ensino.

Pois são de tipo político e não a admissão de que a medida é claramente errada, no nosso contexto actual e não apenas até 2015.

Também se omite o balanço da digressão que – dizem-me – o SE Casanova de Almeida fez por algumas zonas do país.

Cheque ensino já não avança nesta legislatura

Passos garante que medida não avança este ano. Falta de verbas e legislativas empurram a sua concretização para depois de 2015.

O ‘cheque ensino’ não deverá avançar, apurou o Diário Económico. A medida – que prevê o financiamento directo às famílias que escolham os colégios privados para colocar os seus filhos – já foi aprovada em Conselho de Ministros e está em vigor desde Novembro. No entanto, ainda não está regulamentada e não deverá vir a ser aplicada no terreno por falta de verbas antes das próximas eleições legislativas.

O ‘cheque ensino’ “está parado e estou convencido de que não vai avançar”, revelou ao Diário Económico fonte próxima do processo.

Aguardam-se certas e determinadas reacções.

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