… do atraso que foi preciso ultrapassar e porque os borginhos e ramirílios sem memória e com desconhecimento profundo da História dificilmente entendem a realidade com que estão a lidar para além de retratos momentâneos encomendados.

São muito sincrónicos e estruturalistas, mas muito fraquinhos em diacronia e muito pouco evolutivos.

Retirado daqui: The growth of literacy in historic perspective: clarifying the role of formal schooling and adult learning opportunities.

Historians of literacy in the early twentieth century, using primarily available census data show relative continuity in literacy levels from the mid-nineteenth century as discussed at greater length in the second section of this paper. While all countries progressed, their order remained unchanged (Johansson in Graff, 1987, Vincent, 2000). Central and Northern Europe were reported to have achieved over 95 percent literacy; Western Europe, over 80 percent; Austria and Hungary, over 70% (major growth); Spain, Italy and Poland, over 50 percent; and Portugal and orthodox Catholic countries, only around 25 percent. While countries were putting public education systems in place and some form of ‘modernizing’ development was occurring, the more disadvantaged countries were joining the mainstream of higher literacy levels. But, as discussed, there is no evidence that disparities in living, wealth, productive or inequality by region, age, sex, class or ethnic background were being seriously reduced.
According to Johansson and Graff, Southern and Eastern Europe was 80 percent literate by 1950 with the exception of Portugal, the Mediterranean islands and Albania (with a rate of about 50%). Although literacy levels were rising, no major social and economic change took place. Poor people and poor nations as well as poor regions within nations remained (and remain) poor.