EUA


Estudante esfaqueou 19 colegas numa escola dos EUA

Quatro dos feridos em estado crítico. Ataque junta-se a longa série de tiroteios que frequentemente provocam mortes em estabelecimentos de ensino.

Trying to Close a Knowledge Gap, Word by Word

E depois há todo o lado negro do pretenso sonho americano de sucesso…

Close to a quarter of all American children now live in poverty. More than half of all children age 2 and under are cared for during the day by a parent or relative, according to a McCormick Foundation analysis of census data.

To reach those children, educators say they need to focus their efforts on the home.

… algumas pessoas se dessem ao trabalho de analisar as propostas do novo mayor de Nova York (eleito há poucos meses) para a área da Educação, em especial no que se relaciona com o combate às desigualdades, por exemplo, no acesso ao pré-escolar?

The De Blasio Record on Education

 

A Just Decision in Kansas

Nothing Left

The long, slow surrender of American liberals

Polémica acerca da elaboração dos testes que servem de acesso á universidade.

College President: SAT Is Part Hoax, Part Fraud

The president of Bard College says recent changes to the SAT are motivated by the competition that College Board has experienced with its arch rival, the ACT, rather than any serious soul searching.

What Voucher Schools Are Teaching

The Effects of Competition Between Schools on Educational Outcomes: A Review for the United States

Studies of the competition effects from voucher or tuition tax credit scholarship programs on public school student academic outcomes have taken place in seven locations throughout the United States, with the majority of studies taking place in Florida, followed by Wisconsin. This article reviews 21 total studies of the impacts on student academic outcomes, finding neutral to positive results. The various competition measures used in the literature are thoroughly reviewed and regression discontinuity design is identified as the most rigorous estimation strategy capable of identifying the causal effect of competition threats on traditional public schools.

The Impact of Voucher Schools

How school choice has — and hasn’t — worked. Second in a series on education in Milwaukee.

Twenty years ago, Milwaukee grabbed the attention of the nation by instituting the most significant departure from traditional public education in generations: the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program, more commonly known as “choice,” or “voucher schools.”

(…)

Voucher schools serve 16 percent of the city’s student population and represent an annual expenditure of $150 million in tax dollars per year. So the most important question for policymakers, citizens, and, ultimately, parents, is this: has it worked? Has the investment paid off?

(…)

Taken as a whole, the voucher schools on average have similar test score results to Milwaukee Public Schools. Roughly the same percentage of voucher-receiving students were achieving at proficiency or better than all students in MPS in 2010-2011, but the following year, voucher students had somewhat lower test scores in reading and significantly lower scores in math.

Taken school by school, the distribution of quality schools in the voucher system and MPS is similar. Roughly the same percentage of voucher and MPS schools score higher than state averages in reading, and roughly the same percentage are very low performing. There is evidence that tighter accountability standards, including requiring that schools receiving vouchers be accredited and take state standardized tests, has led to better results and fewer bad schools being allowed to participate.

So is the program a net win or loss for the city? Clearly Milwaukee needs more high quality schools, and the voucher program has unquestionably added quality schools to the menu of options open to parents. But the program has also given rise to schools no better than, and in some cases worse, than the public school options nearby.

And while the $6,442 voucher is much lower than the per-pupil expenditures for MPS, a quirk in how the State accounts for private school students, widely known as the “funding flaw,” means city residents arguably pay more than we should per voucher student, while non-Milwaukee residents benefit.

Milwaukee’s grand experiment put power directly into the hands of low-income parents in the form of a voucher. But after 20 years we now know that this power alone is not enough to create excellent schools. The excellent schools that exist in each sector show that it takes a community committed to excellence to make it happen: educators, parents, volunteer board members and others, all committed to a common vision and doing whatever it takes, and held accountable for meaningful results beyond a test score.

Distributional Effects of a School Voucher Program: Evidence from New York City

Abstract

We use quantile treatment effects estimation to examine the consequences of a school voucher experiment across the distribution of student achievement. In 1997, the School Choice Scholarship Foundation granted $1,400 private school vouchers to a randomly-selected group of low-income New York City elementary school students. Prior research indicates that this program had no average effect on student achievement. If vouchers boost achievement at one part of the distribution and hurt achievement at another, zero or small mean effects may obscure theoretically important but offsetting program effects. Drawing upon prior research related to Catholic schools and school choice, we derive three hypotheses regarding the program’s distributional consequences. Our analyses suggest that the program had no significant effect at any point in the skill distribution.

… como um sistema de cheque-ensino direccionado para grupos sociais e étnicos mais desfasvorecidos pode produzir alguns efeitos.

THE EFFECTS OF SCHOOL VOUCHERS ON COLLEGE ENROLLMENT: Experimental Evidence from New York City

(..)
We find suggestive evidence that educational and religious reasons may explain the different findings for African American and Hispanic students.
Although it would be incorrect to say that educational objectives were not uppermost in the minds of respondents from both ethnic groups (as respondents from both groups made it clear that such was the case), the weight given different objectives appears to have differed in some respects. African American students were especially at risk of not going on to college, and families sought a private school — even one outside their religious tradition — that would help their child overcome that disadvantage. Hispanic students were less at risk of not enrolling in college and likely sought a voucher for some combination of religious and educational benefits.

O que eu gostava de saber?

Qual a proporção de alunos de minorias étnicas nos colégios com contrato de associação. Qual a proporção desses alunos nos que têm contratos simples, que são o equivalente mais próximo ao cheque-ensino.

The Case for Corruption

Temple prof: Pa. cyber charters turning huge profits, sending tax dollars out of state

Fewer teachers. No school building. No heating bill. Same cost.

You’d think Pennsylvania’s 16 cyber-charter schools, which teach home-based students via the Web, would spend a lot less per student than bricks and mortar schools.

Not so.

They collect as much money per student as the state’s brick-and-mortar charter schools. Despite a call from Governor Tom Corbett to do otherwise, the state still doesn’t ask how much it actually costs to educate students in cyber-charters to proficiency standards (nor does it, actually, for any of its schools).

Por cá, já há estudos-piloto que… podem dar para o bem ou para o torto.

… através da sua extensão para seis anos (nos EUA pode ser de 3 ou 4 anos, do 9º ou 10º ao 12º ano, conforme os estados) e não da criação de pseudo-cursos de especialização nos politécnicos.

Para quem gosta de seguir os EUA e quer apostar nas STEM – e não estou sequer a dizer se concordo – este é um caminho possível para completar uma escolaridade obrigatória de 12 anos que, quase necessariamente, vai baixar os níveis de exigência no desempenho para muitos que só os querem completar…

Video: Is the Six-Year High School the Future of Education?

Alguns dados sobre a experiência que tem a “desvantagem” de não ser barata e implicar investimento no não-superior público, coisa que é muito mal vista nos últimos anos…

Também é uma solução que implica o envolvimento de grandes empregadores e não andarem os responsáveis pelo curso a mendigar estágios em empresas de vão de escada para fingir potenciais níveis de empregabilidade.

Six-Year High School Lets Students Earn a College Degree and a Job at IBM

New six-year tech high schools in Chicago to offer associate degrees

Six Years of High School? An Educational Experiment in Chicago

Should We Rethink How Long Students Spend in High School?

Should High School Last Six Years?

 

These Schools Mean Business

Corporations are helping educators train kids. It could save the middle class.

To Compete, America Needs 6-Year High Schools

From Brooklyn, Obama Touts Six-Year High School Model

 

Como as escolhas podem reproduzir o insucesso.

High School Choice in NYC: A Report on the School Choices and Placements of Low-Achieving Students (2013)

(…)

The findings show that low-achieving students attended schools that were lower performing, on average, than those of all other students. This was driven by differences in students’ initial choices: low-achieving students’ first-choice schools were less selective, lower-performing, and more disadvantaged. Overall, lower-achieving and higher-achieving students were matched to their top choices at the same rate. Importantly, both low- and higher-achieving students appear to prefer schools that are close to home, suggesting that differences in students’ choices likely reflect, at least in part, the fact that lower-achieving students are highly concentrated in poor neighborhoods, where options may be more limited.

As New York’s 152 municipal unions line up to press Mayor Bill de Blasio for raises and back pay, his administration and the powerful teachers’ union are reaching the final stages of a largely overlooked, drawn-out battle that could prove enormously expensive to the city — potentially putting at risk its ability to balance the budget.

The union is seeking $3.4 billion in retroactive pay, and fiscal experts say there is a realistic chance it could win.

The fight has its roots in something akin to a game of musical chairs, in which the teachers’ union was left without a seat. But the dispute could end up making it harder for other city unions to win the raises they have been agitating for after several years of working with expired contracts.

In the last round of municipal labor negotiations, most city unions received 4 percent pay increases for 2009 and 2010, and in the current dispute the United Federation of Teachers is demanding the same raises.

A partir desta peça do Público, o site americano sobre a Igualdade de Oportunidades.

Adicionalmente (cortesia do Livresco que mandou mais materiais sobre este tema):

Economic mobility hasn’t changed in a half-century in America, economists declare

Utah is Ending Homelessness by Giving People Homes

Liberalismo do nosso cá de casa não é, certamente, embora esta seja uma medida de um político republicano.

Republican State Gives Free Houses to Moochers, Cuts Homelessness by 74 Percent

Pelo que, como sempre achei, a inteligência e a estupidez não se definem pela posição política, mas pelas políticas concretas.

Os nossos alegados liberais no Governo são um nojo em termos sociais, mas isso não implica que não existam liberais com bom senso e consciência. O azar é que a nós só calhou o refugo, os tipos das segundas e terceiras leituras.

The Growth of College Grads in Dead-End Jobs (in 2 Graphs)

A real school reform agenda for 2014

Página seguinte »

Seguir

Get every new post delivered to your Inbox.

Junte-se a 833 outros seguidores